In the following, you find a list of all scientific publications, research articles, books, dissertations and workshop materials that resulted from the CRC768 research project.
Expand AbstractIn Innovationsprozessen von Produkt-Service-Systemen (PSS) gewinnt die Frage an Bedeutung, wie Organisationen die Zusammenarbeit heterogener Akteure zielgerichtet koordinieren und gestalten können. In diesem Beitrag werden drei Maßnahmenbündel vorgestellt, welche die erfolgreiche Vernetzung und Zusammenarbeit heterogener Akteure in Innovationsprozessen unterstützen: Erstens, Maßnahmen, die Teams und vernetzte Akteure unterstützen, erfolgreich mit der Komplexität und Dynamik von PSS-Innovationen umzugehen und Wissen auszutauschen (Teilprojekt A8); zweitens, Maßnahmen, die Organisationen bei der Entwicklung organisationalen Lernens unterstützen (Teilprojekt A11); drittens, Maßnahmen, die Beziehungen und Abhängigkeiten von Akteuren in Innovationsprozessen offenlegen und grafisch illustrieren (Teilprojekt D2).
Autor: Buchholz, Johan; Drewlani, Tobias; Gammel, Josef H.; Dr. Pantförder, Dorothea; Dr. Reif, Julia; Dr. Kugler, Katharina; Prof. Dr. Brodbeck, Felix Document type:
Introducing TRAILS: A tool supporting traceability, integration and visualisation of engineering knowledge for product service systems development
Expand AbstractDeveloping state of the art product service systems (PSS) requires the intense collaboration of different engineering domains, such as mechanical, software and service engineering. This can be a challenging task, since each engineering domain uses their own specification artefacts, software tools and data formats. However, to be able to seamlessly integrate the various components that constitute a PSS and also being able to provide comprehensive traceability throughout the entire solution life cycle it is essential to have a common representation of engineering data. To address this issue, we present TRAILS, a novel software tool that joins the heterogeneous artefacts, such as process models, requirements specifications or diagrams of the systems structure. For this purpose, our tool uses a semantic model integration ontology onto which various source formats can be mapped. Overall, our tool provides a wide range of features that supports engineers in ensuring traceability, avoiding system inconsistencies and putting collaborative engineering into practice. Subsequently, we show the practical implementation of our approach using the case study of a bike sharing system and discuss limitations as well as possibilities for future enhancement of TRAILS.
Autor: Thomas Wolfenstetter, Mohammad R. Basirati, Markus Böhm, Helmut Krcmar
Expand AbstractProduct service systems (PSS) are bundles of physical technological elements and service elements that are integrated to solve customer problems. In practice, most components of PSS are developed independently from each other, which leads to problems with coordination of development activities and integration of PSS components. Therefore, an integrated requirements engineering for PSS is needed that deals with the involvement of developers from product engineering, software engineering, and service engineering, as well as the inherent complexity of the PSS and the development process. In a case study with the development department of a PSS provider, we analyzed requirements documents and conducted expert interviews. We identified problems in the development, for example, that requirements on different levels of abstraction are intermingled, rationales for requirements are missing, and the concretization of requirements is unclear. To solve these problems, we propose a requirements data model (RDMod) for requirements to PSS. An RDMod describes different types of requirements and the relations between them. Thus, it is a scheme for the concretization of the requirements, which especially addresses the problems of structuring the requirements, enabling traceability, and finding conflicts. We then used an analytical evaluation, a feature-based evaluation and a retrospective application with requirements analysts of the industry partner. In a joint workshop, we specified requirements for a PSS with the RDMod. In structured interviews, we analyzed the perceived advantages of the RDMod. The experts confirmed that the RDMod is applicable in their development and it provides a clear structure for the requirements and therefore helps overcoming the identified problems.
Autor: Marina Berkovich, Jan Marco Leimeister, Axel Hoffmann, Helmut Krcmar
Expand AbstractValue shift towards services led to emergence of product-service systems (PSS) as intertwined products and services. PSS development requires collaborating teams with higher domain diversity to tackle service side as well as product side. Since every domain employs a particular set of tools and models, it is challenging to manage consistency among them. However, the PSS literature lacks approaches for managing inconsistency among various type of models. This study proposes a framework that supports establishing a systematic solution for inconsistency identification during PSS development.
Autor: Basirati, Mohammad R.; Zou, Minjie; Bauer, Harald; Kattner, Niklas; Reinhart, Gunther; Lindemann, Udo; Böhm, Markus; Krcmar, Helmut; Vogel-Heuser, Birgit
Expand AbstractExtant research emphasizes that consumers use mass customization toolkits to create products they consider to be unique, and that perceived uniqueness is an important part of customer value. This research investigates the conditions of the customer's quest for uniqueness. It is motivated by the observation that decisions are often driven by others’ choices and a desire to fit in, rather than to be distinct. We hypothesize that consumers are more inclined to choose uniqueness for hedonic product attributes but tend toward conformity in utilitarian attributes, and that consumers’ need for uniqueness and product involvement moderate the choice. In a series of experiments, we find support for most hypotheses. We introduce conformity as a driver of choice behavior in mass customization toolkits and suggest that mass customization can best be seen as enabling consumers’ preferred mix of uniqueness and conformity. Our results also inform managerial practice, highlighting that mass customization toolkits should consider customers’ uniqueness and conformity requirements. We suggest reducing the number of utilitarian options while increasing the variety for hedonic attributes.
Autor: Zaggl, Michael A.; Hagenmaier, Markus A.; Raasch, Christina Document type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Expand AbstractThe adoption of production technologies is a major challenge for manufacturing companies. Despite the long term impact of decisions on production technologies, companies are often unaware how to search for alternative production technologies. We developed a method that focusses on the systematic search for production technologies for fulfilling future manufacturing tasks. The method consists of three steps including the selection of information sources, information search and information evaluation. It takes advantages of the concept of technology lifecycles. The method provides a useful tool for producing companies and has been applied exemplary in the automotive industry.
Autor: Greitemann, Josef; Zaggl, Michael A.; Hehl, Martin; Raasch, Christina; Reinhart, Gunther Document type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Manipulation of explicit reputation in innovation and knowledge exchange communities: The example of referencing in science
Expand AbstractThis paper investigates the manipulation of reputation in the context of innovation and knowledge exchange communities. Reputation is crucial for overcoming the free-riding problem and enables community members to be rewarded because their contributions to the common good can be measured. However, the concept of reputation can include the notion of manipulation, which we define as the attempt to change one's reputation without contributing to the community. To investigate the topic of reputation manipulation, we build on the concept of reputation-based reward systems and extend it by distinguishing between implicit reputation, which is uncodified, and explicit reputation, which is codified and centrally counted. We argue that the possibilities for manipulation differ between these two distinctions. We investigate reputation manipulation empirically in the context of science, which is built on an explicit reputation-based reward system, and we use the received citations as an indicator for reputation. We distinguish two forms of manipulation—unjustified self-citing and unjustified reciprocal citing—and find evidence of both within a bibliometric dataset. This paper contributes to the design of knowledge exchange communities by highlighting the opportunities and challenges arising from explicit reputation-based reward systems, specifically the opportunities for manipulation. It also contributes to the work on misconduct in science.
Autor: Zaggl, Michael A. Document type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
The Dynamics of Openness and the Role of User Communities: A Case Study in the Ecosystem of Open Source Gaming Handhelds
Expand AbstractTo remain competitive, it is critical for firms to integrate external sources of knowledge. However, finding the right degree of openness is challenging, especially in complex open innovation ecosystems. The interdependencies and dynamics related to the choice of openness are not well-understood. This paper investigates the role of openness as a competitive mechanism. Specifically, we research how openness affects firms’ interactions with user communities and how it changes the preference structure of customers. We build a longitudinal case study in the open source gaming handheld industry and trace the evolution and the dynamics of firms, user communities, and their interactions. We find that a suboptimal level of openness can pose a threat to a firm's very existence. Further, we identify repeated patterns characterizing the dynamics in the ecosystem. Based on these patterns, we propose a framework of the dynamics of openness. Our paper contributes to the literature on open innovation. We illuminate the relevance and the dynamics of openness as a dimension for competition. This paper also contributes to the literature on user innovation by showing a shift from manufacturer-based to user-based innovation over the course of the product lifecycle.
Autor: Zaggl, Michael A.; Schweisfurth, Tim G.; Herstatt, Cornelius Document type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Expand AbstractInnovation processes are subject to external and internal cycles. Changes in the business environment such as shifting market requirements, technological advances and macroeconomic cycles represent interdependent factors which have a significant influence on the innovation process. Furthermore there is a trend towards offering integrated products and services, so-called product-service systems (PSS). Due to more complex market offerings as well as a higher number of stakeholders involved in the innovation process, these cycles challenge especially companies providing PSS. A lack of knowledge and handling of these cycles and their dependencies and effects leads to problems. Analysing cycles integrates discipline-specific perspectives in innovation processes and takes changes inside and outside companies into account. The focus of this paper is on reoccurring patterns and their content-related and temporal dependencies for different disciplines in companies providing PSS.
Autor: Schenkl, S. A., Behncke, F. G. H., Hepperle, C., Langer, S., Lindemann, U.
Expand AbstractOne challenge for product development is the change from solely tangible products to more immaterial goods, such as services. This requires offering more than just a product, but opens new business models on the other side. This deferral is called the product-to-service-shift. Combining products and services to a product-service system (PSS) enable companies to better meet customers’ requirements or to increase customer connectivity and to focus on own core competencies. Since PSS are more complex and more interrelated than stand-alone products, developing PSS requires different methods and frameworks. The planning phase for PSS is relevant for the market success, as most important decisions are made in early stages of product development. For this reason, planning PSS requires special methodical support to enable reliable decisions. In this paper, we built a decision methodology for PSS-planning by combining a process model with several methods from previous works. To evaluate its applicability, we conducted a case study from industrial practice and used the methodology for the planning phase of vehicles. The product’s complexity and organizational requirements were high enough for needing methodological support. The case study reveals the need for the methodology and its benefits in a real application.
Autor: Schmidt, Danilo Marcello; Kammerl, Daniel; Preuß, Alexander; Mörtl, Markus Document type: Konferenzbeitrag
Integration of Scenarios in Product-Service System development - Combining Scenarios, Use Cases and Requirements Traceability
Expand AbstractIn product development, a current innovation driver is the integration of services through a shift towards product-service systems (PSS). Therefore, products are extended by additional services, whereas this discipline integration, combined with a necessary future oriented perspective, requires a systematic support for planning and handling complexity. In this context, increasing transparency as well as a better preparation for future evolvements are key aspects. This contribution supports with a procedure that connects the systematic analysis of the future environment with the product-service system and a corresponding case study. Requirements traceability based on a PSS-model is applied to support the impact assessment of future contextual influences on the PSS. Thereby, planning information is transferred into an engineering perspective.
Autor: Weidmann, D.; Seibel, F.; Becerril, L.; Kattner, N.; Lehr, J.; Mörtl, M.; Lindemann, U. Document type: Konferenzbeitrag
Current challenges for sustainable product development in the German automotive sector: A survey based status assessment
Expand AbstractSince 2015/16, dieselgate has initiated transformations of the automotive industry towards the integration of sustainability into the product development process. The present study combines a qualitative approach, based on semi-structured expert interviews, with a quantitative online survey to identify the current status of this implementation. The objective of the paper is to provide an overview on how German automotive companies currently deal with challenges and chances of a sustainable product development. The study obtained the following core conclusions: (1) A common understanding of the term sustainability is missing and a company-wide deﬁnition would be beneﬁcial. (2) There is no consensus on the optimal organizational embedment for sustainability into a company. A centralized responsibility plus distributed awareness was identiﬁed as the most promising solution. (3) As a matter of supply and demand, automotive companies will not over-satisfy the customers’ demand. As dieselgate has boosted public interest, possible competitive advantages were identiﬁed by transforming the product property “sustainability” to a unique selling point. (4) There is an unmanageable amount of methods for the implementation of sustainability in the product development process. For that reason, academically developed methods are only rarely used in industry. (5) Companies are retrospectively evaluating the results of the development rather than using assessment outcomes systematically to improve the product prospectively. (6) Major potential drivers for sustainable product development are laws & politics, customers and competition. Sustainability could become more attractive for industry and customers by creating win-win-solutions. Conceivable propositions are tax advantages or Pigovian taxes, the internalization of sustainability, the shift from tank-to-wheel- towards holistic well-to-wheel-analyses or product service-systems.
Autor: Held, Maximilian; Weidmann, Dominik; Kammerl, Daniel; Hollauer, Christoph; Mörtl, Markus; Omer, Mayada; Lindemann, Udo Document type: Konferenzbeitrag
Expand AbstractA novel lifecycle framework for managing manufacturing resources within a company is presented to support the timely, systematic identification of technological need for action. In contrast to the established bathtub curve, the equipments’ age, maintenance costs, downtimes, and technical condition are considered quantitatively taking uncertainties into account. The developed methodology therefore comprises contingency analysis and applies a dynamic set of fuzzy rules for classifying the cycle-stage of multiple manufacturing resources. Integrating these functionalities within one holistic framework, this approach far exceeds existing methods for proactively managing the manufacturing resource lifecycle. Cooperating with one of the leading manufacturer of commercial vehicles, a database comprising 221 relevant manufacturing resource datasets was built as a foundation for statistical analysis. Besides offering general recommendations facilitating a proactive management approach, the developed lifecycle model concentrates further activities on elements that show major improvement potential.
Autor: Schönmann, A. ; Dengler, C. ; Intra, C. ; Reinhart, G. ; Lohmann, B. Document type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Expand AbstractPermanently evaluating and adopting suitable production technologies due to the dynamic environment is a major challenge for producing companies. However, influencing factors that show cyclic behavior can be anticipated and are predictable to a certain extent. Thus, lifecycle models facilitate the forecast of predictable factors and assist in deriving recommendations for action timely. The developed cycle-oriented planning and evaluation approach provides a cycle stage specific technology requirements profile. The conceptual framework ascertains the suitability of established production technologies using fuzzy sets to meet the vagueness inherent in soft requirements. The presented extension of the production cycle model provides a holistic framework to identify deficits concerning properties of established production technologies proactively. This enables a continuous technology evaluation approach resulting in the timely identification of technological need for action.
Autor: Dengler, C.; Schönmann A.; Lohmann, B.; Reinhart G. Document type: Konferenzbeitrag
Business Model Innovation and Stakeholder Exploring Mechanisms and Outcomes of Value Creation and Destruction
Expand AbstractGiven the objective of the focal firm to generate value for stakeholders, this research aims at assessing mechanisms and outcomes for value creation and destruction between business model innovation (BMI) and stakeholders. To achieve this goal, we conduct a systematic literature review and apply grounded theory as coding scheme. Taking frequent mechanisms and outcomes into account, we construct a conceptual framework and pioneer theory building. As main result, we identify BMI creating economic return for third parties and product/service access for customers. Both outcomes are based on the mechanism of altering resources and processes. In contrast, analyzing stakeholder’s main influence, we find management creating strategic orientation by providing know-how. Our research agenda emphasizes the design of BMI from an ecosystem perspective and the destructive consequences of BMI. While the ecosystem level of analysis provides new insights into the concept, investigating negative impacts contributes to a more holistic understanding of BMI.
Autor: Hermes, Sebastian; Böhm, Markus; Krcmar, Helmut Document type: Konferenzbeitrag
Expand AbstractAlthough business model innovation (BMI) is essential to remaining competitive, many firms fail at it. A promising approach is building on reoccurring successful solutions – business model patterns (BMP) – as a blueprint for BMI. However, existing patterns face constraints subject to a high diversity and overlaps among patterns. In addition, literature do not consider relations among BMPs, which limits their potential for BMI. This paper develops a hierarchical taxonomy of BMPs including generalizations and specializations based on inheritance. We conduct a literature review to identify patterns and a cluster analysis to create an inductive structure, followed by a qualitative analysis. The resulting hierarchical taxonomy includes 194 elements. It is the first hierarchical taxonomy of BMPs. The hierarchy addresses the diversity of patterns and overlaps with inheritance. It aids research to structure and understand BMPs. For practice, the taxonomy allows for the application of patterns and supports BMI.
Autor: Hermes, Weking, Jörg; Hein, Andreas; Böhm, Markus; Krcmar, Helmut Document type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Expand AbstractIndustry 4.0 (I4.0) also known as the fourth industrial revolution has emerged for describing the digitalization of manufacturing industries. In practice, the transition to I4.0 is crucial for manufacturing firms to sustain competitive advantage and seize new opportunities. Most research focuses on the technological aspects of I4.0 in form of product and process innovations. Despite I4.0’s rising attention among both researchers and practitioners, there exists only little research about I4.0 business model innovation (BMI), even though business model (BM) innovators can be more successful than product or process innovators. To address this research gap, we analyze 15 case studies of I4.0 BM innovators. We develop a taxonomy to characterize I4.0 BMs and derive 13 archetypes of I4.0 BMIs that describe transitions towards I4.0 BMs. The three identified super-archetypes are integration, servitization and expertise as a service. Our study deepens the understanding and structure of I4.0 BMs and I4.0 BMIs.
Autor: Hermes, Weking, Jörg; Stöcker, Maria; Kowalkiewicz, Marek; Böhm, Markus; Krcmar, Helmut Document type: Konferenzbeitrag
Companies face the challenge of increased competitive pressure. The differentiation by physical products or services alone is no longer sufficient for coping with this challenge. For this reason, companies offer integrated bundles of physical products and services known as Product Service System (PSS). Requirements engineering has the task of eliciting and managing the requirements. It plays an essential role in the development of PSS. In this thesis an integrated approach for requirements engineering for PSS was developed. The approach describes the content of a specification and defines structuring principles for requirements. Thereby, it supports the interdisciplinary elicitation and concretization of requirements to PSS in accordance with the development process. A comprehensive evaluation of the approach shows its applicability and advantageousness.
Autor: Berkovich, Marina Document type: Dissertation
PS³ - Development and evaluation of a method for scenario-planning of product-service systems based on a creative problem-solving process using analogies
PS³ enables scenario-planning of product-service systems based on a creative problem-solving process using analogies. Starting point for developing PSS scenarios are problems of customers along the customer activity cycle. A PSS scenario combines existing solution components from comparable problems and describes a reasonable flow of events to solve the problem from a customer-centric perspective. The method was evaluated with experiments by applying it to a problem from the area of mobility.
Autor: Fähling, Jens Document type: Dissertation
Customer Integration 4.0: Leveraging Customer Knowledge in Innovation Processes by Using Digital Technologies
Companies increasingly open their innovation processes to integrate external stakeholders such as customers. This thesis provides a decision support system, an ontology, and a software platform for knowledge management in customer integration as well as guidelines for the design of IT-based customer integration methods with regards to usability and user experience. The thesis takes a mixed-methods research approach by combining qualitative and quantitative research methods.
Autor: Füller, Kathrin Document type: Dissertation
This thesis presents a modeling approach for the development of the interdisciplinary system structure of mechatronic production systems, which is based on SysML, a well-established language in systems engineering. Thus, a consistent, cross-disciplinary comprehension of the overall system in the development and a basis for a model-based analysis of change impacts are achieved. The approach was verified and evaluated with a prototypical implemented modeling editor through use-cases and experimental groups.
Autor: Kernschmidt, Konstantin Emanuel Thassilo Document type: Dissertation
Moderne Unternehmen müssen komplexe Innovationsprozesse beherrschen können. Die, für Probleme ursächlichen, wechselseitigen Abhängigkeiten werden von den Autoren analysiert, modelliert und Lösungsvorschläge dargestellt. Hierbei werden Möglichkeiten zur Verbesserung der Innovationsprozesse integrierter Sach- und Dienstleistungen (Produkt-Service Systeme (PSS)) aufgezeigt. Effektivität und Effizienz der Innovationsprozesse, die aus unterschiedlichen Perspektiven betrachtet werden, sind dabei zentrale Schwerpunkte, denn darin liegen die wesentlichen Herausforderungen innovativ wirkender Unternehmen in der Industrie.
Experten aus Wissenschaft und Technik beleuchten verschiedene Facetten der Industrie 4.0 sowohl aus akademischer als auch aus praktischer Sicht und schaffen gleichermaßen einen Überblick über den Stand der Technik und die Vision selbst. Dies gelingt nicht zuletzt mit einer guten Mischung aus wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen, Praxisbeispielen und Übersichtsbeiträgen. Thematisch reicht das Spektrum von Basistechnologien (z. B. cyber-physische Systeme) über Integrations- und Migrationsansätze bis hin zu Geschäftsmodellen und Dienstleistungen. Zudem werden neben der Datensicherheit auch rechtliche Aspekte thematisiert.
Konzept eines wissensbasierten Frameworks zur Spezifikation und Diagnose von Inkonsistenzen in mechatronischen Modellen
S. Feldmann & B. Vogel-Heuser Handbuch Industrie 4.0 Produktion - Automatisierung und Logistik